Historically, since the Internet started to become a common feature in our lives, hackers have been seen as a major threat. This view has repeatedly been entrenched and distributed by media coverage and commentaries through the years. Instead the first 20 years of the Internet was acceptably secure due to the limited abilities of the attackers, compared to the threat generated from a militarized Internet with state actors conducting cyber operations. In reality, the Internet has a reversed trajectory for its security; it has become more unsafe over time and moved from a threat to the individual to a national security threat. The entry of state actors creates a contested cyberspace where intelligence, economic espionage, information operations, and psychological operations radically changed the fundamentals for Internet security. The state actor seeks to exploit weaknesses in the targeted national infrastructure, industrial base's connection to the global networked grid, and take advantage of the fact that our populations heavily rely on the Internet. The aggressive state actor has an advantage in cyberspace due to the weaknesses in attribution, which work as a standing invite to conduct proxy wars, utilizing criminal networks or aligned political groups, to carry out the attacks with little risk for detection. This requires a modified view on cyberspace role in national security.
Chapter 19 – From Cyber Terrorism to State Actors’ Covert Cyber Operations
Jan Kallberg, Bhavani Thuraisingham
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-407191-9.00019-3, How to Cite or Link Using DOI
Permissions & Reprints